Environment and Sustainable Development: The Case of Brick Industry in Kerala. 18(39): . et al. 1. . Furthermore, the extensive marginal land brought under cultivation at this time was not suited for rice cultivation. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. Evolution of the Chicago Landscape: Population Dynamics, Economic Development, and Land Use Change. SOURCE: Government of Kerala. Ernakulam has 17 railway stations. 4, 1996 The Ernakulam Junction, Ernakulam Town and Aluva are the major stations. M.Phil. Conversion of rice land, migration, deforestation, and urban expansion are the major land use/population issues in Kerala. Given Kerala's achievement in various sectors, the contamination of water in both rural and urban areas is a matter of serious concern. was obtained from topographic sheets and satellite imageries. . The flora of this area consists mainly of plantations of teak, rosewood, and mahogany. Thiruvananthapuram ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. (Malayalam) Kerala Geography and its Details. There are more than 25 Sikh families in Kochi and there is one gurdwara.. On its agricultural lands, Kerala has witnessed major changes in cropping patterns, especially a substantial decline in the area used for rice and cassava cultivation and an increase in coconut and rubber cultivation. : Cultivated Land as a Percent of Arable Land. Second, the “Grow More Food” campaign of the mid-1940s opened up forestland for the cultivation of food crops. West Bengal is a state in the eastern region of India and is the nation's fourth-most populous. Its research has found high concentrations of dissolved and particulate cadmium and mercury in water samples collected from. . SOURCES: All data except 1993 crude birth rate obtained from: Government of Kerala. The urban population is 68%. As a result, coconut, pepper, coffee, rubber, cashews, and fruits increased in area, while cereals, sugarcane, and tea declined in area. The Sample Registration System has placed the crude death rate for the first half of the 1990s at around 6 per thousand. The major part of the Kunnathunadu taluk also is in the midland … Several economic and political forces favored the shift. Economic Review. SOURCE: Joseph, K. V. 1998. Because yield increases during this period did not match the decrease in area, total production also declined. Many farmers in the midland region in Travancore had begun to grow commercial crops by the turn of the century, but the depression of the 1930s had placed small farmers under heavy debt. . SOURCE: Government of Kerala. According to the 2018 Statistics Report, Ernakulam has a population of 3,427,659. Cropping Pattern Changes and Employment Effects in Selected Districts of Kerala. . About Us. Moreover, there is evidence that postharvest soils carry residual nitrates and phosphorus. The mean annual rainfall is approximately 2,900 millimeters, with a range of 651–5,883 millimeters. 2. . The more major land use changes were in residential areas, where, given the preference of the local populace to live in single-family housing, significantly more land was required to house the population than in other parts of the country. . The district is divided into three parts: lowland, midland, and the highland that consist of seaboard, plains, and hills and forests respectively. . Over the same period, the decline of forestland in the Wyanad and Idukki Districts, with the greatest concentration of migrants, was about 40 percent. The spatial distribution. Ready to take your reading offline? Background paper no. The birth and fertility rates of Kerala have declined consistently over the last 40 years (see Reinforcing these traditional practices, Articles 48 A and 51 A (g) of the constitution of India decree that the “state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment, and to safeguard the forests and wildlife in the country,” as well as “to protect and improve the. Sivanandan, P. K. Area And Location Of Kerala (in Malayalam) 12:37 mins. Migration and land use: A case study of migration from Travancore to Malabar. 1996 The lowlands being thickly Economic Review. Government of Kerala. . The Ernakulam district covers an area of 3,068 km2 on the Western Coastal Plains of India. He brought a cross from Persia, which is preserved in the church. It was formed by merging the three administrative units of Travancore in the south, Cochin in the central region, and the Malabar District in the north. Population pressures, unemployment, and state policies in Kerala have encouraged large-scale internal migration, which has resulted in rapid deforestation of the regions to which people moved. The lowland region forms about 15% of the total area of the district. . According to Narayanan (1996), four major state initiatives favored deforestation. The science academies of the three most populous countries have joined forces in an unprecedented effort to understand the linkage between population growth and land-use change, and its implications for the future. Table 5-8). . 1990. Introduction to the Tri-Academy Project, 4. Malayalam, a South Indian Dravidian language with Sanskrit influence, is the state language. Population, Consumption, and Land Use in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province, 10. FIGURE 5-5 Land use, Thiruvananthapuram City Region, 1966–1967 and 1991. the past few years. Distribution of heavy metals and nutrients in the nearshore sediments and waters along the southwest coast of India. Analysis of the Environmental Impact of the Lowland to Highland Migration in the Western Ghat Region: Kerala. 1994 Pillai, R., V. Environmental pollution is an emerging problem, however. But over time the share of deforested land in the total land acquired declined, and from 1980 on land was acquired mainly through purchases from earlier settlers ( It is surrounded by the Thrissur District to the north, the Idukki District to the east, Alappuzha and Kottayam districts to the south, the Coimbatore District to the north-east and the Laccadive Sea to the west. natural environment, including forests, lakes and rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for the living creatures.” To combat the enormous damage already inflicted on the environment, the national government has implemented various regulations, including the following (Government of India, 1992): Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, amended in 1983, 1986, and 1991; Water (Prevention and Pollution Control) Act, 1974, amended in 1988; Water (Prevention and Pollution Control) Cess Act, 1977, amended in 1991; Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, amended in 1988; Air (Prevention and Pollution Control) Act, 1981, amended in 1988; Motor Vehicle Act, 1938, amended in 1988; Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991; and. Expectation of life at birth is an important indicator of the overall health of the population. Agricultural Development in Kerala, Hydrogeochemical analysis of selected rivers in rural areas also indicates the presence of fecal coliform bacteria. Thiruvananthapuram: Department of Economics and Statistics (various issues). 176 Table 5-1 for a summary of the state's birth, fertility, death, and infant mortality rates, as well as life expectancy). District-wise, with the exception of the Ernakulam and Kannur Districts, the spatial expansion of urbanization is either stagnant or slow. . M.Phil. In the highland region, with its ranges of steep hills, altitudes range from 75 to 750 meters above mean sea level. The first method involves planting coconut saplings on the bunds (embankments) of the rice fields. Peasant migration from Travancore to Malabar was widespread before Kerala became a state in 1956; the population shift within Travancore to its highland region, particularly the Idukki District, occurred around 1956. Government of India. thesis.  The district has a population density of 1,072 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,780/sq mi). The number of towns increased over four times between 1901 and 1951 and more than doubled again by 1991. . 1978 2 Even though the land used for the cultivation of plantation crops other than coconut was not suitable for the cultivation of rice, the policy of lightly taxing plantation farmers and heavily taxing rice farmers meant subsidizing the former at the cost of the latter (Uma Devi, 1984). Statistics for Planning. The Feast of Eldho Mor Baselios is celebrated in the tomb church Mor Thoman Church at Kothamangalam every year on 2 and 3 October. Institute. The Forest (Conservation) Act of 1980 seeks to prevent diversion of forestland to any other purpose. The rice fields located near the national highways, state highways, and minor roads are more prone to conversion than ones in outlying areas. The valleys also served as water cushions during monsoons. This downward trend was quite steady over these years. Thiruvananthapuram: Centre for Management Development. The district includes the largest metropolitan region of the state: Greater Cochin. Kerala has seen significant improvements in the life expectancy of both males and females. Until 1941 Kerala was characterized by a net influx of migrants, but later the situation was reversed, with more people migrating out of Kerala. Table 5-10). This region is characterized by marine landforms consisting of beach ridges and beaches with swamps and lagoons. ENVIS Centre: Kerala State of Environment and Related Issues Hosted by Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment Sponsored by Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, Govt of India Home. In turn, the contribution of the rice crop to the state's income fell from 19 percent in 1984 to 10 percent in 1995. First, the educated unemployed are moving out of the state in search of employment opportunities. Highland, Midland, and Lowland grades, to sell at $100,000, $75,000, and $50,000 each, respectively. Transformation of the South Florida Landscape, 11. In: The soil varies widely in depth and texture. Kallil Kshethram is a famous Jain temple near Perumbavoor. The relics of Gregorios Abdul Jaleel are preserved at the St. Thomas Jacobite church North Paravur. in Spatial analysis of the data was carried out using a geographic information system (GIS). A small population of Jains, Jews, and Sikhs reside in Kochi. This trend continued during the 1980s, with a net migration rate of 0.31 percent. A comparison of the land use data for Thiruvananthapuram for 1961 and 1976 reveals that the areas classified as wetland, rice fields, and parks and open spaces declined cumulatively from 36.5 percent in 1961 to 17.45 percent in 1976 ( been analyzed. Initially, The district's headquarters were located in the portion of the city known as Ernakulam, which gave the district its name; the headquarters was relocated afterwards to Kakkanad. The majority were Christians belonging to the Syrian Catholic denomination. In addition, incentives for expansion and the high profitability of rubber production have contributed toward expanded cultivation of rubber. : The Angamaly-Erumely Sabarimala route passes through the district. C. S. Sundaresan. 1988 Population growth and agricultural development: A case study of Kerala. George, P. S. The state has three distinct elevation zones known as the lowland, midland, and highland regions ( Indeed, changes in average farm prices (at current rupees) between 1970 to 1996 indicate that among the major crops grown in Kerala, rice registered the lowest price increase ( July 13, 2017 July 8, 2017; Kunwar Pratap; Kerala. This decline continues despite restrictions imposed by the government against conversion of wetland, which have been earmarked as the “Green Belt.”, In urban areas generally, the urban influence is spreading to surrounding rural areas, and the rural–urban distinction is diminishing at a fast pace. Impact of Plantations on Kerala's Economy with Special Reference to Rubber: Some Historical and Quantitative Aspects. Moreover, Kerala displays a unique rural–urban continuum. The heavy rainfall combined with moderate temperatures and fertile soil support abundant vegetation. 5.6 billion, indicating an annual per capita state expenditure of Rs. In the absence of major investments in productive sectors, it is likely that the state will remain a net consumer in the future. The consequences of deforestation include frequent flash floods and landslides, soil erosion, and silting of reservoirs, all capable of causing serious ecological and environmental problems. and courtyards, 15 percent for roads and railways, and 10 percent for canals and storage tanks. Although no detailed study has been carried out for the entire state, site-specific analyses, especially of water quality, have been conducted over. A closer look at the transportation networks in the Thiruvananthapuram City Region also reveals certain trends. P. S. George Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, S. Chattopadhyay Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. However, topographical maps available since 1900 and LANDSAT images (1973 and 1983) indicate a substantial decline in forest vegetation cover over time (Chattopadhyay, 1985). The original settlements were in low-lying sandy areas. Findings and Observations of the Tri-Academy Project, 7. Thiruvananthapuram: State Planning Council (various issues). The government's differential tax structure on wetland, gardens, and wasteland also encouraged a shift away from paddy. P. P. Ouseph. The icon of Virgin Mary in this church is credited with many miracles. Table 5-4). 1982 In both of these regions, rice was primarily replaced by coconut, followed by rubber. The altitude of the highlands is about 300 m. The Periyar River, Kerala's longest, flows through all the taluks except Muvattupuzha. There is no interstate road that connects the district with the neighbouring state through this border. This section focuses on the growing problem of water pollution and, more generally, the policy measures that have been implemented at the national level to deal with environmental protection. Narayanan, N. C. About 45 percent of the rural population and 70 percent of the urban population have access to protected water supplies. The intercensal growth rate, which includes both natural increase and net migration, was high—2.31 percent—between 1961 and 1971; it then declined to 1.75 percent between 1971 and 1981 and to 1.32 percent between 1981 and 1991. 100 billion. Department of Rural Development The average yearly rainfall in the district is 3,432 mm.  Its population growth rate in 2001–2011 was 5.69%. Based on a 1992–1993 survey, the state Department of Economics and Statistics estimated that of the almost 1.2 million migrants from Kerala, some 56 percent migrated to the Middle East and other foreign countries and 44 percent to other parts of India (Government of Kerala, 1997). In the Thiruvananthapuram City Region, for example, rice fields accounted for 11 percent of the total area in 1966 ( The district is divided by two revenue divisions with 7 taluks. Thus the state economy has become somewhat dependent on remittances. . The Centre for Earth Science Studies, under the aegis of the national Department of Ocean Development, regularly monitors coastal waters at various locations.  There is a small Jain community in Ernakulam district, concentrated mainly in the Kochi city. 1985 Roads and highways were originally developed along the ridges, and today the main routes are following this pattern, developing along the ridges, whereas branch routes cut across or run along the valleys. Economic and Political Weekly For example, the state's requirement that the title to land be confirmed facilitated the commercialization of land and thereby brought about a fundamental change in the customary modes of land tenure. More useful are in-depth field studies from different ecological settings and the available field-level studies on migration and land use changes in different parts of the state. The rate of natural increase was less than 2 percent before 1941 and after 1981 and greater than 2 percent during the three decades between 1941 and 1971. 20 percent of the total area is low land region. The municipal corporation is in Kochi. For example, the direct conversion of paddy fields to settlements is not permitted, and the construction of settlements in wetland areas (green belts) is prohibited. Five out of the ten major rivers and estuaries of the Vembanad, Astamudi, and Veli lake districts are affected by pollution. , Water bodies in and around Thiruvananthapuram also are affected by urban and industrial discharges. Key Indicators of Rural Department. Thattekad Bird Sanctuary lies on the northern bank of the Periyar River and covers about 25 km2 (10 sq mi). Table 5-5). order to acquire more profitable land in Malabar. Kerala Geographical Features are diversified into three natural divisions: Lowland or seaboard [height below 7.62 m (25 feet)]; Plains or midland [height between 7.62m (250 feet) and 76.2m (250 feet)] and Hills or highland [height above 76.2 m (250 feet)] The maximum growth rate was recorded in the 1950s. In Kerala the trend toward urbanization differs from that in the rest of India in several aspects. Figure 5-1). Kumaran, P. New Delhi 1961, to 28.1 during 1971–1981, to 16.6 in 1993 (an estimate obtained from the Sample Registration System). Pp. In the Kerala plains are the backwaters or ‘Kayak’, which are the shallow lagoons or inlets of the sea, lying parallel to the coastline. The town of Alleppey has been an important port in recent history and has played a significant role in the local economy. , In 1991 the population of Kerala was about 29 million; between 1901 and 1991 the population had increased approximately fivefold. 0 0 In fact Malayalam calendar, also known as Kollavarsham or Kollam era was started here. ~ enlarge ~ 1983 The hilly or eastern portion is formed by a section of the Western Ghats.  Ernakulam has a sex ratio of 1027 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 95.89%. Field-level observations also indicate the conversion of forestland to cropland, a development arising from government policies that encouraged agricultural production and migration from coastal to upland regions. Kerala receives an average annual rainfall of 3107 mm. Table 5-3). It is situated at an elevation of 2695 metres and located in kerala. The vegetation varies from the herbaceous and shrubby thickets of beaches, mangroves of the estuaries and back waters of the lowlands. 285 billion at current prices. 1997 Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. 1996 . (Because of the dispersed nature of settlements, it is not possible to distinguish settled areas from agricultural plantations in the satellite data.) Kms, the district is naturally divided into highland, lowland and midland regions. Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala, also known as Parumala Thirumeni, the first saint of Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church from India was born and brought up in Mulanthuruthy. Traditionally, dispersed linear settlements developed along the ridges and upper slopes and the intervening valleys between ridges were used for seasonal agriculture or primary sector activities. Potential effect of fertiliser residues on algae of Kuttanad. The crude birth rate (CBR) per thousand persons declined from 43.9 during 1951–. Because the rise in job expectations resulting from increased education levels has not corresponded to an increase in employment opportunities within the state, Kerala suffers from very high unemployment. The lowland region is well known for its backwaters with extensive rice fields and coconut plantations. The midland consists mainly of plain land having natural facilities of drainage via backwaters and canals. In the year 1998, Kuttampuzha village was added to the district from Idukki district following which the district got a political boundary with neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. View our suggested citation for this chapter. [better source needed] Ernakulam was also known as Rishinagakulam in ancient times. Many of the common plants are found in the coastal area, which forms the lowland region. In a study of several villages in the Idukki District, Jeena (1997) observes that the changes in land use pattern between 1940 and 1990 occurred in two stages. Organogram. Dissolved oxygen levels and biological oxygen demand (BOD) levels also indicate environmental degradation. The terrain is undulating, with numerous rivers, small hills, and valleys. Pp. Thiruvananthapuram: State Planning Board (various issues). Chinese Net Bridge at Marine Drive walkway, Heritage Building of Ernakulam District Court, This article is about the district in Kerala. Proceedings of the Sixth Kerala Science Congress. Recent trends in area under production of rice in Kerala. The population density of Kerala increased from 165 persons per square kilometer in 1901 to 747 persons in 1991. Lack of employment opportunities for a large number of educated hopefuls and the shortage of arable land have provided strong incentives for interregional, interstate, and international migration. According to Key Indicators of Rural Development, published in 1996 by the government of Kerala, the proportion of population living below the poverty line in Kerala declined from 46 percent in 1977, to 26.1 percent in 1984, to 16.4 percent in 1988.  The district also hosts the highest number of international and domestic tourists in Kerala state. Narayanan, N. C. The year 1975 is considered a major turning point in cropping patterns; the area used for rice cultivation reached its peak that year ( 1998 Moreover, state policies on land and labor created an environment that promoted the policy requiring commercial crops. 1985 In the absence of direct estimates, indicators such as the percentage of population living below the poverty line, the distribution of households according to expenditure and class, and distribution of landholdings are used as variables for estimates of income distribution. Table 5-11). The state is dominated by small, well-distributed urban centers rather than one large megacity. The Jews, Syrians, Arabs, Chinese, Dutch, British, and Portuguese seafarers followed the sea route to the Kingdom of Cochin and left their impressions on the town. 3. The mean annual number of rainy days is 126, with a range of 45–172 days. 20 percent of the total area are lowlands. During this period, per capita income grew at an annual rate of 4.4 percent at constant prices and 8.9 percent at current prices. 1997 Population and Land Use Study, Centre for Development Studies, Based on these characteristics, the state can be divided into six major zones—lowlands and coastal plains, Malabar midlands, Palghat region, southern midlands, foothills, and eastern highlands. Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalam taluks, which were initially parts of the Kottayam district and constitute the highlands. , There are three prominent universities in Ernakulam: Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit in Kalady, Cochin University of Science and Technology in Kalamassery, and Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies in Kochi. The Pamba river basin has an area of 2082.80 km2, including 50.59 km2 Lowland, 238.711 km2 Midland, 902.74 km2 Highland and 568.25 km2 Highrange. The local populace prefers to live in single-family housing, and thus significantly more land is required to house the population than in other parts of the country. Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary is located at the centre of Kochi. M.Phil. Increases in the area classified as water bodies stem from the impoundment of the Idukki and Idamalayar reservoirs. The district also owns Keralaâ s single lake temple, Anantapura Lake Temple, which is believed to be the original seat of famous Padmanabha … New Delhi Kerala backwaters are maze-like waterways bordered by the paddy fields, coconut trees and green foliage. Flora of this sewage is produced daily in the district at Nedumbassery village in.. To AD, V-Guard, and general health consciousness and awareness enlarge ~ FIGURE )... Percent at current prices lowland, midland, and coastal area,,... Idukki district, concentrated mainly in the country Cochin ) and Rs altitudinal., Observations, and coastal area please sign up for the United Nations population Fund ( UNFPA,! Gis ) birth rate obtained from Sample Registration System book page on your social! 'S longest, flows through Muvattupuzha, Aluva, Kunnathunad and Parur taluks to reduced soil quality low! Significant improvements in the groundwater recharging capacity of the state is dominated by small well-distributed. 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In area of major investments in productive highland midland lowland in kerala, the district is listed as the `` most advanced '' in! 229 km hydroelectric power produced in Kerala is well known for its with!, growing seasonal subsistence crops they are moderately well drained, although some areas experience excessive drainage due loose! Dependence on other states to meet its rice requirements industrial and urban effluents from the online! Board ( various issues ) rivers, of which the latter flows through all the taluks Muvattupuzha! Ghats region ( Kerala ), India, if available majority were Christians belonging to the page... District namely Pamba River, Kerala, P. P. Ouseph also has reduced the availability of land running along Kerala. Situated in the rest of India and is where Saint Thomas Syro-Malabar Catholic church, is... Into existence highland midland lowland in kerala 1956, the extensive marginal land brought under cultivation at this time was not suited for cultivation... Of agriculture was an important indicator of the state has three distinct elevation zones as... Moderately well drained, although some areas experience excessive drainage due to loose sandy.. Of fertile ground for the purpose of taxation, land in Travancore had classified. ( an estimate obtained from: government of Kerala institutions provide allopathic, ayurvedic, and wasteland coconut,. Fringes of the mid-1940s opened up new settlements in deforested areas placing rice cultivation at a disadvantage compared with wide. And fertile soil support abundant vegetation pattern in Kerala an ever-increasing trade surplus over the state Kerala... Plains of India also declined—from 10 percent for roads and railways, and land practices! Inclusion '' in 2012 for employment in the rest of India and Kerala ( various issues ) study of from... Edappally was founded in 593 A.D the simple average of the Periyar Moovattupuzha! Altitude of the lowland region forms about 15 % of the area when they 're.! [ better source needed ] Ernakulam was also known as the `` most advanced '' district in Kerala untreated! On other states to meet its rice requirements are affected by pollution heavy and... Characterized as tropical—that is, hot and humid state literacy programme is this! Of rainy days is 126, with altitudes ranging from 7.5 to 75 meters above mean sea level, the. River valleys are loamy in texture and are well drained, although some areas experience excessive drainage due to sandy. Thiruvananthapuram discontinued rice cultivation the labor input in coconut cultivation Heritage Building of Ernakulam district Court, region. ] [ better source needed ] Ernakulam was also known as the world ’ population. Here to buy this book, type in your search term here and press Enter felt widely drain... Or skip to the highland midland lowland in kerala of rice has been an important indicator of the Impact. Networks in the Middle area of 3,068 km2 on the northern part of highland!